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Всего найдено: 1541
Общие вопросы
Пакистан
Quah J.S.T. Combating corruption in six Asian countries: a comparative analysis. Asian Education and Development Studies. 2016. Vol. 5. Iss. 2. Pp. 244-262.
Soomro S., Memon F. Corruption: socio-political perspective in Pakistan. Government: Research Journal of Political Science. 2013. Vol. 2. Pp. 101-111.

 

In this paper, the issue of  'Corruption' in Sindh has been discussed in a socio-political perspective. The paper starts in an introductive mode and then goes on to explain the prevalence of corruption in Sindh, stating that corruption in Sindh has been increasing at a rate of 5%. Then the paper goes on to discuss the various methods of corruption involving bribery, fraud, embezzlement, fraud, nepotism and abuse of discretion. After that, the reasons which give rise to the phenomenon of corruption in Sindh have been pointed out. The major causes entail: poverty, low salaries, culture, lack of accountability and regulation, red tapism, lack of transparency and poor governance. The main consequences of corruption involve lawlessness, lack of development and growth, resentment in society, disrespect of law and injustice in society. Following that, a set of recommendations has been proposed to counter the issue of corruption. The recommendations comprise of: strengthening of institutions, formation of special courts, increase in salaries and incentives, good governance, and change in attitudes and culture.

Zakaria M. Openness and corruption: a time-series analysis. Zagreb International Review of Economics and Business. 2009. Vol. 12. Iss. 2. Pp. 1-14.

The paper empirically examines the relationship between trade openness and the level of corruption in Pakistan using annual time-series data for the period 1984 to 2007. The analysis shows that trade openness negatively affects corruption in Pakistan. The results are robust to controlling for other corruption determining variables and various model specifications. Sensitivity analysis shows that economic development and political liberalization reduce corruption levels. Other explanatory variables i.e. human and physical capital, government expenditures, population, inflation and defense expenditures significantly affect corruption in the expected directions.

Польша
Gadowska K. National and international anti-corruption efforts: the case of Poland. Global Crime. 2010. Vol. 11. Iss. 2. Pp. 178-209.
Heywood P., Meyer-Sahling J.-H. Danger zones of corruption: how management of the ministerial bureaucracy affects corruption risks in Poland. Public Administration & Development. 2013. Vol. 33. Iss. 3. Pp. 191-204.
Johannsen L., Pedersen K.H. For the common good: combating corruption in new EU member states. Journal of Comparative Politics. 2011. Vol. 4. Iss. 1. Pp. 91-110.

Corruption is a problem of collective action. The fight against corruption came on the international agenda in the 1990s. The core of the recommendations from International organizations and scholars is to establishment of anti-corruption agencies with the aim of increasing the risk of detection and punishment to individual who engage in corrupt affairs. However, despite condemnation by all cultures, individuals and societies can be socialized into a culture of corruption where the benefits of partaking in corruption will exceed those of being honest. It is thus not sufficient to change individual incentives without also seeking to change behavioural norms. Through a comparison of Estonia, Poland and Bulgaria it is shown that there is no ’miracle cure’. Anti-corruption agencies are important but effectiveness presumes economic reform, a well functioning system of justice and a credible public condemnation of corruption. An efficient anti-corruption policy is multi-faceted employing instruments simultaneously with each instrument conditioned on the others. 

Kojder A. Corruption in Poland: symptoms, causes, scope and attempted counter-measures. Polish Sociological Review. 2004. Iss. 146. Pp. 183-202.
McManus-Czubińska C., Miller W.L., Markowski R., Wasilewski J. Why is corruption in Poland “a serious cause for concern”? Crime, Law & Social Change. 2004. Vol. 41. Iss. 2. Pp. 107-132.
Palidauskaite J. Codes of ethics in transitional democracies. Public Integrity. 2006. Vol. 8. Iss. 1. Pp. 34-48.
Довжик Н.Р. Борьба с коррупцией в современных условиях: опыт Польши после вступления в Европейский Союз. Апробация. 2014. № 5. С. 136-137
Скляров С.А. Опыт Польши в противодействии коррупции (2002-2012). Труд и социальные отношения. 2013. № 3. С. 119-133
Португалия
Bihim J. As practicas dos gestores publicos em Portugal e os codigos de etica / The practices of public managers in Portugal and the codes of ethics. Sequencia: estudios juridicos e politicos. 2014. Iss. 69. Pp. 61-82

На португальском языке.

Branco M.C., Matos D. The fight against corruption in Portugal: evidence from sustainability reports. Journal of Financial Crime. 2016. Vol. 23. Iss. 1. Pp. 132-142.
De Sousa L. Political parties and corruption in Portugal. West European Politics. 2001. Vol. 24. Iss. Pp. 157-180.
De Sousa L. “I don’t bribe, I just pull strings”: assessing the fluidity of social representations of corruption in Portuguese society. Perspectives on European Politics & Society. 2008. Vol. 9. Iss. 1. Pp. 8-23.

Portugal has often been considered as a case of successful democratic consolidation;and in fact the same ethical standards underpin democratic government and the rule of law – equality, transparency, accountability, impartiality, legality and integrity – as are found in mostother mature Western European democracies. However, there is something singular about thePortuguese case that may be of interest to scholars of other southern European countries and theconsolidating democracies of Eastern Europe: The coexistence of modern/rational and pre-modern/family-based relations between citizens and the public administration. This means thatcorruption in Portugal is not only about bribery but also about a series of other practices and conducts – ones in which the exchange of money for decisions is neither clear-cut nor automatic.Drawing on European and national survey data, this paper sets out to demonstrate that beneaththe apparently consensual condemnation of corruption at a symbolic level, citizens tolerate it, byengaging in small influence peddling, in their daily relationships with the public administration.

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