During 1999–2000 Indonesia pursued many anti-corruption reforms but appeared to achieve little success in reducing the level of corruption, which remained a high profile problem in all branches of government. This article summarises the reform initiatives carried out since 1998 and offers an explanation for their very limited success. Obstacles to reducing corruption in Indonesia include the economic and political constraints facing the current government and the entrenched nature of corruption. The content of the reform program itself may also contribute to the per- sistence of the problem. The program consists primarily of moves to introduce moni- toring and sanctioning mechanisms that are external to particular government organisations. Internal reforms that aim to improve organisational self-discipline have received much less attention. The reform program may thus be inherently incomplete.